속초콜걸⇀24시출장샵♨속초서울대입구 안마방<속초모텔 보도>W〖속초카톡 출장 만남〗☼속초구로 마사지⇠속초안마방 백마╒속초출장소이스홍성◊속초조치원 마사지⇙속초y존 마사지

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

광주출장샵
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

속초콜걸卐예약►속초서울대입구 안마방<속초부평 에이스 안마방>ニ〖속초지저분한 섹스 나고야 여성 전용 마사지〗ヨ속초감성마사지란ソ속초마사지 롤러☇속초일본 보빨❧속초에이미 av♩속초밀양 안마방

The governments of more than 190 nations 제천일본 마사지 노모 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

속초콜걸➚출장부르는법-속초서울대입구 안마방<속초강남역 마사지>♐〖속초가산 마사지〗♈속초자지 마사지⇚속초남친이랑 마사지↪속초울산 안마방 추천♮속초정자역 안마방◐속초신림 안마방

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

속초콜걸⊥예약금없는출장샵ナ속초서울대입구 안마방<속초video fc2 마사지>▶〖속초남친 마사지〗▤속초대딸방☍속초안마방 일베➸속초정읍 안마방ⓥ속초사당 출장┐속초세븐 상추 안마방

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 서울출장안마 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

속초콜걸☷24시출장샵↼속초서울대입구 안마방<속초안마방 몰카 tumblr>◙〖속초창동 마사지〗✤속초맛사지┵속초nhdta 마사지£속초여수 마사지↱속초제주 안마방μ속초부산 연산동 안마방

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 아산소라넷 안마방 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

속초콜걸ワ24시출장샵╜속초서울대입구 안마방<속초카메라 마사지>✓〖속초동대문 마사지〗♐속초마사지 노출◄속초마사지 발기①속초슈얼 마사지⇍속초정왕역 안마방↽속초모텔 콜

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – lovedonggu.xyz – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

속초콜걸속초출장

  • 양주포항 타이 마사지
  • 속초포승읍 안마방
  • 속초콜걸
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    속초콜걸╬출장부르는법⇩속초서울대입구 안마방<속초강동구 안마방>❂〖속초조건 만남 서울〗⇃속초동네 안마방§속초여성전용 안마방ノ속초삼산동 출장↮속초해수욕 마사지➼속초안마방 발기

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 구례안마방 체험 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 창원출장안마 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

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    포항여관 비용 카지노사이트 의성오피
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 수원출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    속초콜걸➻예약»속초서울대입구 안마방<속초동암 마사지>☠〖속초일본 해수욕장 마사지〗▀속초안마방 콘돔╏속초포항 타이 마사지↕속초오사카 안마방ム속초대전 마사지 후기☯속초부천 마사지 추천

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 경상북도타이 아로마 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    속초콜걸セ출장부르는법◦속초서울대입구 안마방<속초천안 출장>☞〖속초안마방 오전〗➹속초출장몸매최고☆속초건식 마사지▨속초안마방 예약┠속초안마방 얼굴☺속초역삼동 마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 온라인카지노 .

    창원에이미 av
    천안시각장애인 마사지 카지노사이트 아산강동구 안마방
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    속초콜걸▩출장부르는법❀속초서울대입구 안마방<속초이동국 안마방>╦〖속초타이 마사지 썰〗✒속초출장 사기♥속초김무열 마사지✍속초양배추 안마방ケ속초안마방 텀블러↹속초영등포구청 안마방

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 온라인카지노 .

    속초콜걸✓출장부르는법↺속초서울대입구 안마방<속초광명사거리 안마방>♮〖속초서현 안마방〗➠속초크라운제이 안마방┮속초서울 마사지┱속초안마방 부산ム속초금정 안마방.속초오피 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And lovedonggu.xyz .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 청주남편 안마방 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    속초콜걸☻예약금없는출장샵┓속초서울대입구 안마방<속초여성 전신 마사지>♥〖속초소라넷 마사지〗♬속초인천 안마방 후기☠속초창원 안마방☀속초서울대입구 안마방↰속초대전 커플 마사지◣속초속초 모텔 가격

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    속초콜걸▲예약금없는출장샵♀속초서울대입구 안마방<속초섹시 마사지>↹〖속초휴게텔 안마방 차이〗┿속초자지 마사지↕속초모텔 티켓↕속초카톡 조건♭속초발바닥 마사지♀속초안마방 영어로

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 안동화곡동 안마방 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The jasonboy.xyz , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 서울출장안마 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 보은인천공항 마사지 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 온라인카지노 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    속초콜걸⇩예약금없는출장샵×속초서울대입구 안마방<속초정관 마사지>➢〖속초신천 모텔 추천〗◈속초코코넛 오일 두피 마사지╯속초왁싱 마사지╍속초전립선 마사지 효과❀속초안마방 스타킹↲속초안마방 tumblr

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 전주출장샵 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 카지노사이트 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 카지노사이트 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    속초콜걸☇출장부르는법♧속초서울대입구 안마방<속초우에하라 아이 마사지>♥〖속초보지 마사지〗ヒ속초출장가격ロ속초누드 마사지╬속초마사지☀속초안마방 입싸↤속초오일 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    대구마사지 야동 토렌트
    카지노사이트 고성안마방 통화기록 온라인카지노.xyz
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    속초콜걸╌예약∴속초서울대입구 안마방<속초이천 안마방>↺〖속초안마방 ㅇㄷ〗✥속초국노 토렌트♦속초이동국 안마방┧속초안마방 나이대⇦속초안마방 청룡열차〓속초안마방 내부

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.속초콜걸속초안마방 비용┓속초김해 안마방↼〖속초판교 마사지〗속초제주도 안마방㍿속초광주 대딸방▧ 속초누드 마사지↹속초안마♥천안출장샵예약속초부산대 안마방⇪속초출장마사지 후기◐《속초구미 모텔 추천》속초승무원 마사지┥속초창동 안마방❂속초목동역 마사지┪속초안마방 출장╓속초콜걸용인남친이랑 마사지속초포항 여관☢속초오산 안마방⇃{속초고잔동 마사지}속초성감 마사지☇속초체코 마사지 토렌트⊙속초천호동 안마방⇣속초인계동 안마방 후기유속초트레이너 마사지»속초타이마사지 꿀팁▤【속초대구 안마방】속초마사지 레전드 품번☶속초안마방 짜파게티☟속초포항 아가씨♚속초임산부 마사지┑속초교대 마사지■속초안마방 에이스 토렌트ο『속초남성전용』속초출장마사지샵♮속초인계동 마사지☾속초아마 시안↷속초필리핀 안마방➴속초강북 안마방╌속초다낭 에덴 마사지☇(속초안산 조건)속초김해 출장 샵⇁속초쿤타이 마사지♯속초남친이랑 마사지↖속초안마방 토렌트★24시출장샵강진천호 안마방예약속초마사지 포르노✚속초방콕 마사지 추천┶{속초상무지구 안마방}속초안마방 벌금⇜속초스웨 디시 마사지 란▦속초코 마사지 효과㊣속초부산 안마방 후기⇛속초콜걸속초콜걸군산출장샵속초감성마사지 뜻속초한물간 연예인 안마방속초오리역 안마방속초안마방 수위속초콜걸속초마사지 포르노♬속초신주쿠 마사지┠(속초안마방 20살)속초안마방 cctv┥속초에이미 av⇖속초사당역 안마방♧속초대구 마사지↧군산출장 마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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